How are toxins metabolized in the body?
One of the most important determinants of the persistence of toxins in the body is the extent with which they can be metabolized and excreted. There are several families of enzymes that metabolize both endogenous and exogenous toxins.  
  • The P450 system
  • Flavin-contining monooxidases (FMO)
  • Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases
  • Amine oxidase
  • Cyclo-oxigenases: COXs
  • Reductases
  • Hydrolases
  • Conjugating enzymes such as methyltransferases and glutathione transferases
The liver is able to detoxify many different substances through various metabolic pathways. These include:
  • Transforms fat-soluble toxins into water-soluble waste products
  • De-animation: Converts ammonia to urea which is transported to the kidneys to eliminate
  • Trans-amination: converts one amino acid into another
  • Hormone homeostasis: steroid hormones testosterone and estrogen are modified and inactivated
  • Most drug detoxification: most drugs are modified or biotransformed, rendering them inactive
  • Most chemical agents detoxified:
The phase I and phase II liver detoxification pathways

In the liver, most toxins entering are fat-soluble. They go through phase I metabolism to become more water soluble.

Phase I mainly involves the

  • Cytochrome P450 system
  • Flavin-containing monooxidases (FMOs)
  • Hydrolases

Conjugating enzymes typically add a group to make it more water soluble such as a

  • Sugar
  • Sulfate
  • Amino acid

In the case of alcohol breaking down to acetyaldehyde, the intermediate metabolite is more toxic.

The phase I detoxifying pathway takes care of

  • environmental toxins such as
    • Pesticides
    • Pollutants
    • Food additives
    • Drugs
    • Alcohol
    • end products of metabolism

The metabolic pathway of phase I liver detoxification produces significant amounts of free radicals. The danger is when the antioxidant status is not sufficient and the P450 system is overloaded or induced (by certain substances) then liver tissue damage occurs.

The phase II pathway is also called the conjugation pathway. The liver adds substances rich in sulfhydryl groups in order to metabolize the toxins and they are excreted together. Examples of sulfhydryl groups are cysteine, taurine, and glutathione. These are formed from glycine, glutamine, and cysteine by way of a selenium-dependent enzyme.

After toxins go through these two phases in the liver, they must be elminated to the external environment.

These detoxification pathways are exactly what Biotherapeutic DrainageTM make efficient. Then the drainage remedies help channel the toxins to the organs of elimination from the liver. In addition, the drainage remedies can be used to make the organs of elimination function efficiently for effective elimination. This is all in addition to making the cells of all the organs of the body function more efficiently, and clear toxins wherever have accumulated.

Introduction to Bioregulatory Medicine

Alta Smit, Arturo O’Byrne, Bruno Van Brandt, Ivo Bianchi, Klaus Kuestermann, 2009 Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany